Journal of Experimental Child Psychology vol:94 issue:1 pages:43-56
In this study we investigated the development of basic effects that have been found in single-digit multiplication arithmetic: the problem size, five and tie effects. Participants (9-, 10- and 11-year-old children and adults) performed a production task on simple multiplication. The procedure replicated Campbell and Graham’s (1985) study, but the results show that the gradual decrease of the problem size effect ends in sixth grade. We report analyses on raw latencies and state trace analyses, which take into account reaction time scaling as a function of age (Verhaeghen & Cerella, 2002). The results show that 11-year-old children do not differ significantly from adults, on either of the three effects. Before the age of 11, interesting developmental changes occur.