Reaggregate cell cultures of mouse or rat anterior pituitary were found to produce interleukin-6 (IL-6), a cytokine known for its multiple actions in the immune system. Studies on aggregates prepared from differentially enriched pituitary cell populations revealed the presence of folliculo-stellate (FS) cells to be essential for IL-6 production. Aggregates that contained only hormone-secreting, but no FS cells, failed to produce IL-6. Furthermore, the yield of IL-6 increased with increasing proportions of FS cells present in the aggregates. It is suggested that IL-6 participates in the local regulation of the secretory function of the hypophysis and may constitute a link between events in the immune system and those in the endocrine system.