Nuclear inhibitor of protein phosphatase-1 (NIPP1; 351 residues) is a nuclear RNA-binding protein that also contains in its central domain two contiguous sites of interaction with the catalytic subunit of protein phosphatase-1 (PP1(C)). We show here that mutation of these phosphatase-interaction sites did not completely abolish the ability of NIPP1 to bind and inhibit PP1(C). This could be accounted for by an additional inhibitory phosphatase-binding site in the C-terminal region (residues 311-351), with an inhibitory core corresponding to residues 331-337. Following mutation of all three PP1(C)-binding sites in the central and C-terminal domains, NIPP1 no longer interacted with PP1(C). Remarkably, while both NIPP1 domains inhibited the phosphorylase phosphatase activity of PP1(C) independently, mutation of either domain completely abolished the ability of NIPP1 to inhibit the dephosphorylation of myelin basic protein. The inhibitory potency of the C-terminal site of NIPP1 was decreased by phosphorylation of Tyr-335 and by the addition of RNA. Tyr-335 could be phosphorylated by tyrosine kinase Lyn, but only in the presence of RNA. In conclusion, NIPP1 contains two phosphatase-binding domains that function co-operatively but which are controlled independently. Our data are in agreement with a shared-site model for the interaction of PP1(C) with its regulatory subunits.