In Ca(2+)-transporting epithelia, calbindin-D(28K) (CaBP(28K)) facilitates Ca(2+) diffusion from the luminal Ca(2+) entry side of the cell to the basolateral side, where Ca(2+) is extruded into the extracellular compartment. Simultaneously, CaBP(28K) provides protection against toxic high Ca(2+) levels by buffering the cytosolic Ca(2+) concentration ([Ca(2+)](i)) during high Ca(2+) influx. CaBP(28K) consistently colocalizes with the epithelial Ca(2+) channel TRPV5, which constitutes the apical entry step in renal Ca(2+)-transporting epithelial cells. Here, we demonstrate using protein-binding analysis, subcellular fractionation and evanescent-field microscopy that CaBP(28K) translocates towards the plasma membrane and directly associates with TRPV5 at a low [Ca(2+)](i). (45)Ca(2+) uptake measurements, electrophysiological recordings and transcellular Ca(2+) transport assays of lentivirus-infected primary rabbit connecting tubule/distal convolute tubule cells revealed that associated CaBP(28K) tightly buffers the flux of Ca(2+) entering the cell via TRPV5, facilitating high Ca(2+) transport rates by preventing channel inactivation. In summary, CaBP(28K) acts in Ca(2+)-transporting epithelia as a dynamic Ca(2+) buffer, regulating [Ca(2+)] in close vicinity to the TRPV5 pore by direct association with the channel.