Molecular Biology of the Cell vol:16 issue:9 pages:4375-85
Protein kinase D2 (PKD2) belongs to the PKD family of serine/threonine kinases that is activated by phorbol esters and G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs). Its C-terminal regulatory domain comprises two cysteine-rich domains (C1a/C1b) followed by a pleckstrin homology (PH) domain. Here, we examined the role of the regulatory domain in PKD2 phorbol ester binding, catalytic activity, and subcellular localization: The PH domain is a negative regulator of kinase activity. C1a/C1b, in particular C1b, is required for phorbol ester binding and gastrin-stimulated PKD2 activation, but it has no inhibitory effect on the catalytic activity. Gastrin triggers nuclear accumulation of PKD2 in living AGS-B cancer cells. C1a/C1b, not the PH domain, plays a complex role in the regulation of nucleocytoplasmic shuttling: We identified a nuclear localization sequence in the linker region between C1a and C1b and a nuclear export signal in the C1a domain. In conclusion, our results define the critical components of the PKD2 regulatory domain controlling phorbol ester binding, catalytic activity, and nucleocytoplasmic shuttling and reveal marked differences to the regulatory properties of this domain in PKD1. These findings could explain functional differences between PKD isoforms and point to a functional role of PKD2 in the nucleus upon activation by GPCRs.