Affected sib pair and linkage disequilibrium analysis, intrafamilial and case-control association studies were performed on 81 Danish multiplex insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM) families (382 individuals) and 82 healthy Danish controls. The results confirm the linkage of D15S107 to IDDM in these Danish IDDM families (P = 0.010). When these data are combined with those of previous studies, an even stronger case for linkage can be made (P = 0.0005). Our analyses show that the D15S107*130 allele provides increased susceptibility (P = 0.02, relative risk = 3.55) and that the D15S107 locus contributes up to 16% of the familial clustering of IDDM. The analysis of affected sib pairs suggests that HLA and D15S107 may possibly act independently of each other. Taken together with our previous findings, our results suggest that three causes of susceptibilities can be discerned in the IDDM patient population: (1) a major susceptibility caused by the HLA-DRB1 alleles; (2) a minor susceptibility caused by the joint action of HLA and other non-HLA gene(s); and (3) a minor susceptibility caused by non-HLA gene(s).