Hypereosinophilia is a rare presenting sign of acute lymphocytic leukemia. A 29-year-old male was diagnosed with idiopathic hypereosinophilic syndrome with respiratory symptoms. Although his peripheral blood eosinophilia decreased in response to treatment with imatinib mesylate, a follow-up bone marrow showed a diffuse infiltrate of myeloperoxidase-negative blasts. He was subsequently diagnosed with CD10 positive precursor B lymphoblastic leukemia. This case underscores the importance of follow-up bone marrow examination in patients who demonstrate imatinib mesylate-responsive eosinophilia.