Statistics in medicine. vol:20 issue:12 pages:1825-42
A non-parametric implementation of the bivariate Dale model (BDM) is presented as an extension of the generalized additive model (GAM) of Hastie and Tibshirani. The original BDM is an example of a bivariate generalized linear model. In this paper smoothing is introduced on the marginal as well as on the association level. Our non-parametric procedure can be used as a diagnostic tool for identifying parametric transformations of the covariates in the linear BDM, hence it also provides a kind of goodness-of-fit test for a bivariate generalized linear model. Cubic smoothing spline functions for the covariates are estimated by maximizing a penalized version of the log-likelihood. The method is applied to two studies. The first study is the classical Wisconsin Epidemiologic Study of Diabetic Retinopathy. The second study is a twin study, where the association between the elements of twin pairs is of primary interest. The results show that smoothing on the association level can give a significant improvement to the model fit.