Journal of Leukocyte Biology vol:62 issue:5 pages:563-569
Chemokines contribute to the inflammatory response by selective attraction of various leukocytic cell types. Human GCP-2 was originally identified by amino acid sequence analysis as a CXC chemokine co-produced with IL-8 by osteosarcoma cells. Furthermore, the complete coding domain of human GCP-2 was disclosed by means of RT-PCR. Similarly, mouse GCP-2 was isolated from fibroblastoid and epithelial cells and completely identified by sequence analysis. Human and mouse GCP-2 share 61% identical amino acids. Both chemokines occur as multiple NH2-terminally truncated forms. The shorter forms of mouse, but not those of human, GCP-2 showed a higher neutrophil chemotactic potency and gelatinase B releasing capacity. Mouse GCP-2 was a more potent neutrophil activator than human GCP-2, natural mouse KC, and MIP-2. Human GCP-2 was not chemotactic for monocytes, lymphocytes, or eosinophils. Quantitative studies of mRNA expression in diploid fibroblasts revealed GCP-2 induction by IL-1beta. Human GCP-2 induced [Ca2+]i increase in neutrophils, which was reciprocally desensitized by IL-8, GROalpha, and ENA-78. Human GCP-2 induced [Ca2+]i increases and chemotactic responses in both CXCR1- and CXCR2-transfected cells. Finally, GCP-2 provoked neutrophil accumulation and plasma extravasation in rabbit skin. In humans, GCP-2 complements the activity of IL-8 as neutrophil chemoattractant and activator but it constitutes a major neutrophil chemokine in the mouse. GCP-2 induces neutrophil chemotaxis and activation but it might also contribute to detrimental tissue damage in sepsis, acute respiratory distress syndrome, acute hypersensitivity reactions, and autoimmune diseases. It might also influence the invasive capacity of GCP-2-secreting tumor cells.