Diagnostic Molecular Pathology B vol:10 issue:4 pages:228-35
Chondrosarcomas are malignant cartilaginous tumors. Most are located in the medullar cavity (central chondrosarcoma), and a minority develop in a preexisting osteochondroma (peripheral chondrosarcoma). The authors present karyotypes for 37 central, peripheral, juxtacortical, and dedifferentiated chondrosarcomas. Using loss of heterozygosity (LOH) analysis and DNA flow cytometry, the authors previously showed that central and peripheral chondrosarcomas probably evolve by different genetic mechanisms. Peripheral chondrosarcoma is characterized by genetic instability, as was previously shown by a high percentage of LOH and a broad range in DNA ploidy. The authors now show that all peripheral chondrosarcomas tested are aneuploid, combined with many nonspecific chromosomal aberrations. Two juxtacortical chondrosarcomas showed normal chromosome numbers combined with limited structural alterations, substantiating that juxtacortical and peripheral chondrosarcomas are two clinicopathologically different entities with a different genetic background. Central chondrosarcomas were previously found to be peridiploid with limited LOH, most frequent at 9p21. In the current study, chromosome 9 was involved in five of seven central chondrosarcomas compared with only one of four peripheral chondrosarcomas. Three central tumors showed involvement of the 9pl2-22 region, suggesting an important role for chromosome 9 in the oncogenesis of central chondrosarcoma. Moreover, trisomy 22 was found in four central chondrosarcomas only.