Cellular cholesterol depletion triggers shedding of the human interleukin-6 receptor by ADAM10 and ADAM17 (TACE)
Matthews, Vance × Schuster, Björn Schütze, Stefan Bussmeyer, Ingo Ludwig, Andreas Hundhausen, Christian Sadowski, Thorsten Saftig, Paul Hartmann, Dieter Kallen, Karl-Josef Rose-John, Stefan #
Journal of Biological Chemistry vol:278 issue:40 pages:38829-39
Interleukin-6 (IL-6) activates cells by binding to the membrane-bound IL-6 receptor (IL-6R) and subsequent formation of a glycoprotein 130 homodimer. Cells that express glycoprotein 130, but not the IL-6R, can be activated by IL-6 and the soluble IL-6R which is generated by shedding from the cell surface or by alternative splicing. Here we show that cholesterol depletion of cells with methyl-beta-cyclodextrin increases IL-6R shedding independent of protein kinase C activation and thus differs from phorbol ester-induced shedding. Contrary to cholesterol depletion, cholesterol enrichment did not increase IL-6R shedding. Shedding of the IL-6R because of cholesterol depletion is highly dependent on the metalloproteinase ADAM17 (tumor necrosis factor-alpha-converting enzyme), and the related ADAM10, which is identified here for the first time as an enzyme involved in constitutive and induced shedding of the human IL-6R. When combined with protein kinase C inhibition by staurosporine or rottlerin, breakdown of plasma membrane sphingomyelin or enrichment of the plasma membrane with ceramide also increased IL-6R shedding. The effect of cholesterol depletion was confirmed in human THP-1 and Hep3B cells and in primary human peripheral blood monocytes, which naturally express the IL-6R. For decades, high cholesterol levels have been considered harmful. This study indicates that low cholesterol levels may play a role in shedding of the membrane-bound IL-6R and thereby in the immunopathogenesis of human diseases.