Evaluation of the contribution of different ADAMs to tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFalpha) shedding and of the function of the TNFalpha ectodomain in ensuring selective stimulated shedding by the TNFalpha convertase (TACE/ADAM17)
Journal of Biological Chemistry vol:279 issue:41 pages:42898-906
Tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNFalpha), a potent pro-inflammatory cytokine, is released from cells by proteolytic cleavage of a membrane-anchored precursor. The TNF-alpha converting enzyme (TACE; a disintegrin and metalloprotease17; ADAM17) is known to have a key role in the ectodomain shedding of TNFalpha in several cell types. However, because purified ADAMs 9, 10, and 19 can also cleave a peptide corresponding to the TNFalpha cleavage site in vitro, these enzymes are considered to be candidate TNFalpha sheddases as well. In this study we used cells lacking ADAMs 9, 10, 17 (TACE), or 19 to address the relative contribution of these ADAMs to TNFalpha shedding in cell-based assays. Our results corroborate that ADAM17, but not ADAM9, -10, or -19, is critical for phorbol ester- and pervanadate-stimulated release of TNFalpha in mouse embryonic fibroblasts. However, overexpression of ADAM19 increased the constitutive release of TNFalpha, whereas overexpression of ADAM9 or ADAM10 did not. This suggests that ADAM19 may contribute to TNFalpha shedding, especially in cells or tissues where it is highly expressed. Furthermore, we used mutagenesis of TNFalpha to explore which domains are important for its stimulated processing by ADAM17. We found that the cleavage site of TNFalpha is necessary and sufficient for cleavage by ADAM17. In addition, the ectodomain of TNFalpha makes an unexpected contribution to the selective cleavage of TNFalpha by ADAM17: it prevents one or more other enzymes from cleaving TNFalpha following PMA stimulation. Thus, selective stimulated processing of TNFalpha by ADAM17 in cells depends on the presence of an appropriate cleavage site as well as the inhibitory role of the TNF ectodomain toward other enzymes that can process this site.