The transcription factor Forkhead box protein P1 (FOXP1) is highly expressed in a proportion of diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL). In this report, we provide cytogenetic and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) data showing that FOXP1 (3p13) is recurrently targeted by chromosome translocations. The genomic rearrangement of FOXP1 was identified by FISH in three cases with a t(3;14)(p13;q32) involving the immunoglobulin heavy chain (IGH) locus, and in one case with a variant t(2;3) affecting sequences at 2q36. These aberrations were associated with strong expression of FOXP1 protein in tumor cells, as demonstrated by immunohistochemistry (IHC). The cases with t(3p13) were diagnosed as DLBCL ( x 1), gastric MALT lymphoma ( x 1) and B-cell non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, not otherwise specified ( x 2). Further IHC and FISH studies performed on 98 cases of DLBCL and 93 cases of extranodal marginal zone lymphoma showed a high expression of FOXP1 in approximately 13 and 12% of cases, respectively. None of these cases showed, however, FOXP1 rearrangements by FISH. However, over-representation of the FOXP1 locus found in one additional case of DLBCL may represent another potential mechanism underlying an increased expression of this gene.