European journal of psychological assessment vol:20 issue:4 pages:237-246
Background: This article reports on a study of the new concurrent validity between the standard expressed emotion instrument, the Camberwell Family Interview (CFI) and two alternative EE measures, the Level of Expressed Emotion (LEE) and the Perceived Criticism Scale (PCS). Method: The research sample consisted of 56 schizophrenic clients, who were residing in sheltered residences, and 56 professionals. Results: Based on the results of the correlation matrix between all the subscales of the instruments, a significantly positive relationship was found between the criticism scale of the CFI, the total score of the LEE, and the client version of the PCS. These correlations, however were rather weak, which implies that three instruments have little in common with each other. The professionals' version of the PCS does not appear to be an EE instrument. Conclusions: The results suggest that the CFI still remains the best instrument for assessing EE in a therapeutic relationship (between a professional and a client). If there is insufficient time to administer the CFI, then the client version of the PCS and the LEE can be used with the qualification that the PCS and LEE also measure other aspects and thus cannot completely replace the CFI. Nevertheless, the research indicates that asking the clients would seem to provide a better indication of the level of the professionals' criticism rather than asking the professionals themselves directly.