Title: Genetic variability in the renin-angiotensin system: prevalence of alleles and genotypes
Authors: Staessen, Jan ×
Ginocchio, G
Wang, J G
Saavedra, A P
Soubrier, F
Vlietinck, Robert
Fagard, Robert #
Issue Date: Oct-1997
Series Title: Journal of cardiovascular risk. vol:4 issue:5-6 pages:401-22
Abstract: BACKGROUND: Variants of the human genes coding for renin, angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE), angiotensinogen (AGT) and the angiotensin II type-I receptor (AT1R) are inconsistently associated with cardiovascular-renal disease, possibly because of genetic differences in the background populations. METHODS: This systematic review of the literature investigated genetic variation in the renin system according to race, sex and age. Across studies with relevant information, multivariate analyses also accounted for the methods of genotyping and the enrollment of subjects as controls, cases or groups studied cross-sectionally. RESULTS: The 185 reviewed reports included 64978 subjects. In five studies (n=989) on the renin gene, the Hind III and Taq I polymorphisms varied with the groups' average age, whereas the Bg I, Bg II and Hind III but not Taq I sites differed according to race. Among 135 studies (n=44697) on the deletion/insertion (D/I) polymorphism of the ACE gene, the frequency of the D allele was 54.0%. Its prevalence was not related to sex and black race, was 49.9% lower in Asians, 10.0% lower in studies relying on I-specific primers, 4.9% higher for each 25-year increment in the average age of the groups studied, and 16.7% higher in cases than controls. Among 12 studies (n=4952) on the T174-->M variant of the AGT gene, the M174 frequency was 11.0%, did not vary according to sex and enrollment group, was 56.7% lower in blacks and 39.5% lower for each 25-year increase in the groups' mean age. Across 44 studies (n=16713) on the M235-->T substitution in the AGT gene, the T235 prevalence was 51.6%. Its frequency was not related to sex and the method of genotyping, tended to be 7.5% lower for each 25-year increase in average age, was from 4.6 to 6.6 times higher in nonwhites than whites and 13.2% higher in cases than controls. Among 13 studies (n=4332) on the A1166-->C variant of the AT1R gene, the C1166 allelic frequency was 25.7%. Its prevalence was independent of the enrollment group, 77.4% lower in Asians, and nearly doubled for each 25-year increment in age. CONCLUSION: With adjustments applied for the subjects' enrollment group and the methods of genotyping, genetic polymorphism in the renin system varies according to race and age, but not sex. One possible application of the present results is to provide allelic and genotypic frequencies, which could be used to assess power, to perform sample size calculations, or to predict selection bias in future studies.
ISSN: 1350-6277
Publication status: published
KU Leuven publication type: IT
Appears in Collections:Clinical Genetics Section (-)
Hypertension and Cardiovascular Epidemiology
× corresponding author
# (joint) last author

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