Title: (Make) stick and cut loose--disintegrin metalloproteases in development and disease
Authors: Tousseyn, Thomas ×
Jorissen, Ellen
Reiss, Karina
Hartmann, Dieter #
Issue Date: Apr-2006
Series Title: Birth defects research. Part C, Embryo today : reviews. vol:78 issue:1 pages:24-46
Abstract: "A disintegrin and metalloprotease" (ADAM) proteases form a still growing family of about 40 type 1 transmembrane proteins. They are defined by a common modular ectodomain architecture that combines cell deadhesion/adhesion and fusion motifs (disintegrin and cysteine-rich domains), with a Zn-protease domain capped by a large prodomain. Their ectodomain thus strikingly resembles snake venom disintegrin proteases, which by combined integrin blocking and extracellular proteolysis, can cause extensive tissue damage after snake bites. A surprisingly large proportion (13 ADAMs) is exclusively expressed in the male gonads, and only a minority can be found throughout all tissues. As predicted by their amino acid sequence, a major proportion of this family has not maintained a functional protease domain, most probably rendering them into pure adhesion and/or fusion proteins. For most ADAMs, the respective key function has remained elusive. Despite their overall conserved ectodomain structure, ADAMs appear to be subdivided into those with a predominant role in direct adhesion (e.g., ADAMs 1, 2, and 3) and those mainly acting as proteases (e.g., ADAMs 10 and 17). Only for a few of them are functions of more than one domain documented (e.g., ADAM9 in cell fusion and proteolysis). Several ADAMs exist in both membrane-resident and secreted isoforms; the functional significance of this dichotomy is in most cases still unclear. Knockout phenotypes have been informative only in a few cases (ADAMs 1, 2, 10, 12, 15, 17, and 19) and are mainly related to their protease function. A common denominator of ADAM-mediated proteolysis is the ectodomain shedding of a broad spectrum of substrates, including paracrine growth factors like epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) ligands, cell adhesion molecules like CD44 or cadherins, and the initiation of regulated intramembrane proteolysis (RIP), whereby the transmembrane fragment of the respective substrate is further cleaved by an intramembrane cleaving protease to release an intracellular domain acting as a nuclear transcription regulator. Most ADAMs feature a significant overlap of substrate specificities, explaining why an inactivation of individual ADAMs only rarely causes major phenotypes.
ISSN: 1542-975X
Publication status: published
KU Leuven publication type: IT
Appears in Collections:Molecular Genetics Section (-)
Department of Human Genetics - miscellaneous
Translational Cell & Tissue Research
× corresponding author
# (joint) last author

Files in This Item:

There are no files associated with this item.

Request a copy


All items in Lirias are protected by copyright, with all rights reserved.