Rhabdomyosarcomas are classified into three well-defined categories: embryonal, alveolar and pleomorphic rhabdomyosarcoma. Recently, seven cases of an unusual adult type of rhabdomyosarcoma with a prominent hyaline sclerosis have been described. We report the hitherto unreported cytogenetic changes of an adult sclerosing rhabdomyosarcoma. A 79-year-old woman underwent an amputation for a rapidly growing soft tissue mass in the anterior compartment of the right lower leg. The tumor infiltrated the tibia. On histology, a fascicular spindle to round cell proliferation, embedded in a prominent hyaline matrix, was seen. Immunohistochemistry showed focal desmin, myogenin and MyOD1 expression, and electron microscopy revealed Z-band material. Cytogenetic analysis disclosed a 44-49,XX,+del(1)(p22),+11,+16,+18,+21,-22 [cp13] karyotype. Using fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) analysis, the tumor cells were negative for FOXO1A-disrupting translocations specific for alveolar rhabdomyosarcoma. The chromosomal composition of malignant cells resembled the pattern of numerical changes frequently observed in embryonal rhabdomyosarcoma, suggesting a close relationship of an adult sclerosing rhabdomyosarcoma with this entity.