We present a 6-year-old boy with moderate developmental delay, gait disturbance, autism related disorder and mild dysmorphic features. He was seen for evaluation of his retardation since the age of 2.8 years. At first sight, a cytogenetic analysis showed a normal 46,XY karyotype. Neurological examination at the age of 5.5 years revealed a motor and sensory polyneuropathy. A quantitative Southern blot with probes PMP22 and VAW409 specific for Charcot-Marie-Tooth type 1 (CMT1) disclosed a duplication which confirmed the diagnosis HMSN Ia. Subsequently, GTG banded metaphases were re-evaluated and a small duplication 17p was seen on retrospect. Additional FISH with probe LSISMS (Vysis) specific for the Smith-Magenis region at 17p11.2 again showed a duplication. Both parents had a normal karyotype and the duplication test for CMT1 showed normal results for both of them. The boy had a de novo 46,XY,dup(17)(p11.2p12) karyotype. The present observation confirms previous findings of mild psychomotor delay, neurobehavioural features and minor craniofacial anomalies as the major phenotypic features of dup(17)(p11.2) and dup(17)(p11.2p12); in cases of duplications comprising the PMP22 locus HMSN1 is associated. A recognizable facial phenotype emerges characterized by a broad forehead, hypertelorism, downslant of palpebral fissures, smooth philtrum, thin upper lip and ear anomalies.