Journal of hazardous materials vol:137 issue:1 pages:235-243
Leaching of heavy metals from MSWI bottom ash exceeds some of the Flemish limit values for recycling the material as granular construction application. In particular, leaching of Cu, Zn and Pb often exceeds the limit value, with Cu being the most critical. In order to recycle bottom ash, treatment is therefore required. The bottom ash studied was divided on-site into four fractions using a large-scale wet sieving installation: a sludge fraction (O 0-0.1 mm), a sand fraction (O 0.1-2 mm) and two gravel fractions (O 2-6 and 6-50 mm). The two gravel fractions complied with the limit values after 3 months of natural ageing. The sand and sludge fraction did not reach the limit value for Cu. Four weeks of accelerated carbonation resulted in an important decrease of Cu leaching from these two fractions, although the limit value is still exceeded. In view of applying carbonation as one of the treatment methods in an integrated industrial application, two tests were additionally performed. The use of stack gas as carbonating medium was verified by setting up an accelerated carbonation experiment at the incineration plant. Also, the depth of carbonation was measured in a 10 cm thick sample of the sand fraction after different periods of treatment. After 3 months of natural ageing only the upper 4 cm underwent a significant carbonation, while after one week of accelerated carbonation the total sample was carbonated. A model was developed to predict these experimental results. (c) 2006 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.