In this paper, hydrophilic polymer membranes based on macromolecular chitosan networks have been synthesized and characterized. The structure of the membrane has been altered in several ways during the formation to adjust the properties, particularly with regard to the elasticity, tensile strength, permeability, and surface structure. An alteration of the network structure was achieved by addition of flexibilizer, cross-linking with dialdehydes, symplex formation of the chitosan with the polyanion sulfoethyl cellulose, and the introduction of artificial pores on the micro- and nanometer scale into the chitosan matrix with silica particles or poly(ethylene glycol). The resulting network structures and morphologies of these unique membranes that combine the novel alteration techniques have been characterized in detail and correlated with molecular parameters of the chitosan as degree of deacetylation, molar mass, and charge density. Finally, we report on the impact of the new network structures on physical properties of the membranes, the water vapor and gas permeability and the tensile strength, to evaluate possible application of the membranes as a wet wound dressing material with microbial barrier function that actively assists the healing process of problematic wounds. Parts of the novel combined membrane alteration and formation techniques are now covered by the patent DE 102004047115.