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Title: Reuse, treatment, and discharge of the concentrate of pressure-driven membrane processes
Authors: Van der Bruggen, Bart ×
Lejon, L
Vandecasteele, Carlo #
Issue Date: Sep-2003
Publisher: Amer chemical soc
Series Title: Environmental science & technology vol:37 issue:17 pages:3733-3738
Abstract: Application of pressure-driven membrane processes (microfiltration, ultrafiltration, nanofiltration, and reverse osmosis) results in the generation of a large concentrated waste stream, the concentrate fraction, as a byproduct of the purification process. Treatment of the concentrate is a major hurdle for the implementation of pressure-driven membrane processes since the concentrate is usually unusable and has to be discharged or further treated. This paper reviews possibilities to treat or discharge the concentrate: (i) reuse, (ii) removal of contaminants, (iii) incineration, (iv) direct or indirect discharge in surface water, (v) direct or indirect discharge in groundwater, and (vi) discharge on a landfill. General guidelines are given for the choice of a proper method as a function of the origin and composition of the water treated. Next, the further treatment of the concentrates in four application areas of pressure-driven membrane processes (drinking water industry, leather industry, and membrane treatment of landfill leachates and of textile process waters) is discussed.
URI: 
ISSN: 0013-936X
Publication status: published
KU Leuven publication type: IT
Appears in Collections:Process Engineering for Sustainable Systems Section
× corresponding author
# (joint) last author

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