Application of pressure-driven membrane processes (microfiltration, ultrafiltration, nanofiltration, and reverse osmosis) results in the generation of a large concentrated waste stream, the concentrate fraction, as a byproduct of the purification process. Treatment of the concentrate is a major hurdle for the implementation of pressure-driven membrane processes since the concentrate is usually unusable and has to be discharged or further treated. This paper reviews possibilities to treat or discharge the concentrate: (i) reuse, (ii) removal of contaminants, (iii) incineration, (iv) direct or indirect discharge in surface water, (v) direct or indirect discharge in groundwater, and (vi) discharge on a landfill. General guidelines are given for the choice of a proper method as a function of the origin and composition of the water treated. Next, the further treatment of the concentrates in four application areas of pressure-driven membrane processes (drinking water industry, leather industry, and membrane treatment of landfill leachates and of textile process waters) is discussed.