Colloids and Surfaces A, Physicochemical and Engineering Aspects vol:150 issue:1-3 pages:217-228
The steady state rheological properties of viscous emulsions are discussed in the dilute and semi-dilute concentration regions. In these systems the first normal stress differences can be measured as well. Such data have been collected over a wide range of ratios of droplet over matrix viscosity. In this manner data became available to evaluate the Choi-Schowalter model. Application of the latter to the normal stresses requires that the droplet diameter be known. At high shear rates the droplet diameter changes nearly inversely proportional to the shear rate. This results in a first normal stress difference proportional to shear rate and hence a 'normal viscosity' can be defined. This is used to compare the data with the available theoretical predictions. At low shear rates deviations from a constant normal viscosity can be observed. They are associated with a hysteresis region, where no single steady state droplet size can be defined anymore. Slightly viscoelastic components have been used as well to investigate whether this would result in deviations from the behaviour observed for mixtures of Newtonian fluids. (C) 1999 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved.