Clinical orthodontics and research vol:4 issue:3 pages:130-140
This study aimed at determining the relative genetic and environmental impact on a number of well-known cephalometric variables in twins. In order to find a clue in the heritability pattern of some dentofacial characteristics and on the expected limits of the therapeutic impact on the dentofacial subparts they are representing. Cephalograms were collected from 33 monozygotic and 46 dizygotic twins, who did not undergo any orthodontic treatment. Nineteen linear and four angular variables were selected all representing a different definite subpart of the dentofacial complex. The reproducibility of the measurement of most of the linear variables was very high. A genetic analysis using model fitting and path analysis was carried out. First, data were checked on the fulfilment of the conditions for genetic analysis in twins reared together. The results show that the genetic determination is significantly higher for vertical (72%) than for horizontal (61%) variables. As far as the genetic component is concerned, all variables selected seem to be inherited by additive genes, except for mandibular body length, which was determined by dominant alleles. Sex differences in genetic determination were found for the anterior face height, showing a significantly higher genetic component for boys (91%) than for girls (68%). For the angular measurements, no genetic influence was found: only environmental influences common to both members of each pair could be demonstrated.