Neurobiology of disease. vol:6 issue:5 pages:376-91
Proteolytic processing and degradation tightly regulate the amount of stable, functional presenilin 1 (PSEN1) in the cell. The approximately 46-kDa PSEN1 holoprotein is cleaved into a approximately 30-kDa N-terminal fragment (NTF) and a approximately 20-kDa C-terminal fragment (CTF) by an unknown protease. The fragments are stabilized in a high molecular weight complex and nonincorporated fragments and excess holoprotein are degraded by the 26S proteasome. The tight balance between, on the one hand, processing and incorporation into the stable complex and, on the other hand, proteolytic degradation of excess PSEN1, indicates that minor changes in one of these two processes could be pathologically relevant. Here we demonstrate the direct physical interaction between PSEN1 and two subunits, HC5 and ZETA, of the 20S proteasome. These interactions were identified using an interaction trap screening and were further established in an in vitro binding assay. Furthermore, we were able to coimmunoprecipitate the transfected binding partners, as well as the endogenous PSEN1 and ZETA proteins from HEK 293T cells. Finally, degradation of ubiquitinated wild-type and mutant PSEN1 by the 26S proteasome was demonstrated. In conclusion, we report a direct interaction between PSEN1 and subunits of the 20S catalytic particle of the 26S proteasome, further establishing the involvement of proteasomal degradation in the regulation of PSEN1 turnover.