IEEE transactions on medical imaging vol:17 issue:5 pages:842-852
A preoperative planning system for oral implant surgery was developed which takes as input computed tomographies (CT's) of the jaws. Two-dimensional (2-D) reslices of these axial CT slices orthogonal to a curve following the jaw arch are computed and shown together with three-dimensional (3-D) surface rendered models of the bone and computer-aided design (CAD)-like implant models. A technique is developed for scanning and visualizing an eventual existing removable prosthesis together with the bone structures. Evaluation of the planning done with the system shows a difference between 2-D and 3-D planning methods. Validation studies measure the benefits of the 3-D approach by comparing plans made in 2-D mode only with those further adjusted using the full 3-D visualization capabilities of the system. The benefits of a 3-D approach are then evident where a prosthesis is involved in the planning. For the majority of the patients, clinically important adjustments and optimizations to the 2-D plans are made once the 3-D visualization is enabled, effectively resulting in a better plan. The alterations are related to bone quality and quantity (p < 0.05), biomechanics (p < 0.005), and esthetics (p < 0.005), and are so obvious that the 3-D plan stands out clearly (p < 0.005). The improvements often avoid complications such as mandibular nerve damage, sinus perforations, fenestrations, or dehiscences.