Investigations of the ultrasonic strain amplitude-dependent internal friction (ADIF) and of the influence of ultrasonic vibrations on the macroplastic strain (the acoustoplastic effect) have been performed in situ during deformation of quenched Cu-Al-Ni single crystals in the Pi martensitic phase. The effect of the macroscopic plastic strain rate on the ADIF and acoustoplastic effect as well as the kinetics of the acoustoplastic effect has been studied. The results of in situ ADIF measurements are compared with data on the ADIF temperature dependence. Observed regularities are attributed to differences in the mechanisms of the macroplastic deformation of the martensitic phase, related to the motion of intervariant interfaces, and of the reversible anelastic strain, which, at ultrasonic frequencies and moderate strain amplitudes, is largely due to the oscillatory motion of the partial disiocations. The conclusion has been drawn that the dynamics of partial dislocations at temperatures of 210-300 K is to a great extent determined by their interaction with atmospheres of mobile pinners with saturated density. Simultaneous measurements of the ADIF and acoustoplastic effect allows the conclusion that, for high oscillatory strain amplitudes, the breakthrough of partial dislocations beyond the mobile atmospheres of pinners initiates the step-like accumulation of the macroplastic strain due to the motion of intervariant boundaries. (C) 2000 Acta Metallurgica Inc. Published by Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved.