Journal of Alloys and Compounds vol:360 issue:1-2 pages:98-106
The Bi-In-Sn-Zn system is an important alloy system in lead-free soldering. Thermodynamic descriptions for the ternary systems Bi-In-Sn, Bi-In-Zn, Bi-Sn-Zn and In-Sn-Zn are optimized, using the CALPHAD method and combined to obtain a description of the quaternary Bi-In-Sn-Zn. All available experimental data from the literature are taken into consideration in the optimization. Calculated liquidi, isothermal and vertical sections and thermodynamic properties are compared with experimental data. Ternary and quaternary invariant reactions are also calculated. (C) 2003 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.