Developments in deformation and recrystallization textures were studied in cold-rolled (50-90% reduction) ultra low carbon (ULC) steel using X-ray texture measurements and orientation imaging microscopy (OIM). During deformation, gamma-fibre (ND//(111)) increased between 0 and 50% reduction but then did not change significantly, while alpha-fibre (RD//(110)) increased progressively from 0 to 90% reduction. After complete recrystallization, however, a steady increase in gamma and almost no changes in alpha were observed with increasing strain. Developments in recrystallization textures were attributed to two parameters: (1) spacings (lambda(i), as measured along the normal direction, ND, where i can be a specific component of alpha/gamma-fibres) of the alpha/gamma deformed bands; and (2) their relative ability to form recrystallized grains. While lambda(i) was determined by the deformation texture and the thicknesses of the deformed grains/bands and naturally decreased with increasing strain, estimations of parameter (2) were obtained from the so-called nucleation factors (N-i, defined as the number of recrystallized i grains per i band-as measured/estimated along the ND). At higher strains, noticeable drops in the N(i)s of alpha-fibre were observed. Two plausible causes for such drops were increased stored energy advantages for gamma bands and orientation pinning in some of the alpha regions. (C) 1998 Acta Metallurgica Inc. Published by Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved.