Journal of the electrochemical society vol:152 issue:6 pages:C392-C398
The effect of turbulence on the incorporation of particles in metal deposits during electrodeposition was studied experimentally by comparing particle incorporation in deposits made under laminar and turbulent flow conditions. Flow conditions were chosen such that the average hydrodynamic shear force acting on particles on the electrode is equal for both flows. Under these conditions, possible differences in the amount of particle incorporation could be related to the fluctuations of the hydrodynamic shear force due to turbulence. The mean shear force on particles in laminar and turbulent flow was calculated from the velocity gradients. The velocity gradient on a rotating cylinder electrode in turbulent flow was experimentally determined using microelectrodes. It was shown that the incorporation of neutrally buoyant particles on a rotating cylinder and a rotating disk electrode is equal, which proves that the incorporation of particles on a rotating cylinder electrode is not influenced by flow variations due to turbulence. However, the incorporation of particles denser than the electrolyte greatly depends on the centrifugal force. © 2005 The Electrochemical Society.