Journal of the electrochemical society vol:139 issue:2 pages:413-425
A model for the electrolytic codeposition of spherical particles with metals on a rotating disk electrode is presented, based on a trajectory analysis of the particle deposition, including convective mass transport, geometrical interception, and migration under specific forces, coupled to a surface immobilization reaction. A number of relevant forces were included and their effects determined. Theoretical predictions of this model are compared with experimental results for the codeposition of spherical polystyrene particles with copper during electrolysis from an acid copper sulfate solution. The influence of fluid flow velocities, particle concentration, and current density on the rate of particle deposition is illustrated. Experiments done on a rotating disk electrode allow the adhesion forces to be determined from the distribution of particles on the surface. It is shown that codeposition is governed by colloidal interactions that can, in first order, be approximated by the Derjaguin-Landau-Verwey-Overbeek interactions plus an additional short range repulsion that was associated with the hydration force.