Metallurgical and Materials Transactions B, Process Metallurgy and Materials Processing Science vol:37B issue:6 pages:929-940
Furnace protection by water-cooled freeze linings becomes increasingly important as the metal producing industry attempts to achieve higher process intensities. Systematic investigations of the growth and the resulting microstructure and compositional profile of freeze linings are necessary to understand the behavior of freeze linings, their relation with the industrial process, and their interaction with the wall cooling system. We have developed a technique based on the submergence of a water-cooled probe into a liquid stag bath. Freeze linings of two industrial nonferrous slags have been produced using this technique and their growth, microstructural, and compositional profiles as a function of submergence time were determined. Thermodynamic equilibrium for the investigated slag systems was calculated and compared with the observed microstructures. The freeze linings form in approximately 15 minutes. Close to the water cooling, the freeze linings are predominantly amorphous in structure. With increasing distance from the water cooling, the proportion of crystalline phases increases and bath material is entrapped in the microstructure. Cellular crystals are observed close to the bath. The freeze linings exhibit an approximate homogeneous composition. The results demonstrate that the technique is a successful tool in obtaining information on the growth, microstructure, and composition of freeze linings in industrial water-cooled furnaces.