Reports on progress in physics vol:67 issue:8 pages:1367-1428
A large number of polycrystalline materials, both manmade and natural, display preferred orientation of crystallites. Such alignment has a profound effect on anisotropy of physical properties. Preferred orientation or texture forms during growth or deformation and is modified during recrystallization or phase transformations and theories exist to predict its origin. Different methods are applied to characterize orientation patterns and determine the orientation distribution, most of them relying on diffraction. Conventionally x-ray pole-figure goniometers are used. More recently single orientation measurements are performed with electron microscopes, both SEM and TEM. For special applications, particularly texture analysis at non-ambient conditions, neutron diffraction and synchrotron x-rays have distinct advantages. The review emphasizes such new possibilities.