Loteprednol etabonate: A soft steroid for the treatment of allergic diseases of the airways
Szelenyi, I × Hochhaus, G Heer, S Kusters, S Marx, D Poppe, Hugo Engel, J #
Prous science, sa
Drugs of today vol:36 issue:5 pages:313-320
There are several approaches for developing new antiallergic/antiasthmatic agents. One of them is the improvement of an existing class of effective drug classes. Due to some undesired effects of intranasal or inhaled corticosteroids, there is a need for better tolerated corticosteroids. Loteprednol etabonate belongs to the so-called class of soft steroids because it is metabolized by a onestep reaction (hydrolysis) without using the cytochrome P450 monooxygenase system. In in vitro investigations using human cells, loteprednol inhibited the release of proinflammatory cytokines (e.g., TNF-alpha, GM-CSF, IL-4, IL-5) according to its relative binding potency to the glucocorticoid receptor. In in vivo animal studies, loteprednol effectively inhibited allergically induced vascular leakage in the nasal cavity of actively sensitized Brown Norway rats and rhinorrhea in actively sensitized domestic pigs following nasal challenge. In several models of allergic asthma, it was clearly demonstrated that loteprednol was able to suppress the allergically induced late phase eosinophilia in mice, rats and guinea pigs. After intrapulmonary administration of loteprednol, only a slight, statistically nonsignificant reduction in thymus weight was observed in a dose range far less than the therapeutically relevant doses. Its therapeutic ratio is clearly superior to those of beclomethasone and budesonide. Loteprednol is a safe steroid with an extremely wide range between therapeutic and side effect inducing doses. Its elimination profile, its pronounced binding to plasma protein and erythrocytes and the low oral bioavailability makes this drug highly suitable for nasal or pulmonary use. (C) 2000 Prous Science. All rights reserved.