The possibilities for therapeutic bronchoscopy have rapidly expanded during the last decade. Several techniques can be used exclusively or complementary to each other: dilation therapy, Nd-YAG laser photoresection and endobronchial stent insertion. This armamentarium can be used in several forms of tracheal stenosis, both benign and malignant. In post-intubation injuries and other benign conditions it can be a definitive treatment. In neoplastic tracheal stenoses, these procedures allow the time needed for proper staging and sometimes surgical resection, or very valuable palliation in well selected patients with inoperable disease.