Cement and concrete research vol:36 issue:8 pages:1416-1424
Mortars with mud, gypsum and lime as binder have, since ancient times, been used for very different applications. The characterisation of these historic mortars was until 1970-1980 mostly based on traditional wet chemical analyses but the interpretation of these results is difficult and often impossible without a good knowledge of the nature of the different mortar components. More recently developed mortar characterisation schemes have optical microscopy as a first step in identifying the aggregates, of the various mineral additions (latent hydraulic), binder type, binder-related particles and in describing the pore structure. Optical microscopy is also a valuable aid for damage diagnosis of degraded historic mortars and for the study of the interfacial zone, the bonding and possible reaction rims between aggregates, bricks or stone and the mortar. Automated image analysis techniques or manual point-count/linear traverse methods can be used to determine mix proportions, binder/aggregate ratio, aggregate size distribution and air void system.. (C) 2005 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.