Parenting, family contexts, and personality characteristics in youngsters with VCFS: The personality profiles for 48 youths with Velo-Cardio-Facial syndrome (VCFS) were described using the California Child Q-Set (CCQ). Associations between personality characteristics and parenting (i.e., Control and Warmth vs. Anger) and family contexts (i.e., Experienced Family Stress, Marital Conflict and Parental Consistency) were investigated. Personality characteristics were found to be related to parenting (in particular, Parental Warmth vs. Anger) but not to family contexts. Parents who reported more Parental Warmth (and less Anger) in interactions had children with higher Agreeableness, Conscientiousness and Emotional Stability and with lower Irritability and Dependency. Parental Control was positively related to children's Dependency and negatively to children's Conscientiousness. Compared to fathers, mothers exerted more Control. Differences in parenting and family contexts were related to the mode of inheritance but not to IQ, age, gender, and cardiac defects. Families in which a familial deletion occurred reported higher levels of Marital Conflict and lower Warmth in the parent-child interactions.