Earth surface processes and landforms vol:32 issue:4 pages:574-586
Closed depressions (CDs) are lower lying areas where the sediment eroded from the surrounding soil surfaces draining towards the CD is trapped in the system. CDs have been reported in several regions of the European loess belt and are attributed either to natural processes (e.g. dissolution of subsurface horizons) or to human intervention (e.g. quarrying). Previous studies focussed mainly on cropland areas where, however, only few and largely filled in CDs remain.