Philadelphia positive multiple myeloma is a very rare event and, so far, no molecular data about the involvement of the BCR and C-ABL genes are available. We report here the case of a 64-year-old woman presenting with a typical multiple myeloma and a complex Philadelphia (Ph) chromosome that we investigated at a molecular level using conventional DNA techniques and the polymerase chain reaction (PCR). No rearrangement was observed within the major breakpoint cluster region (M-BCR) although she was found to have a P190 BCR/ABL hybrid transcript using PCR. As far as we know, this is the first description of a P190-type mRNA in a patient with a chronic lymphoid disorder. Since P190 is almost always associated in man with acute forms of hematological malignancies, this suggests that other factors may play a role in determining the phenotype of the disease.