American Journal of Medical Genetics vol:120 issue:1 pages:49-58
Greig cephalopolysyndactyly (GCPS) (OMIM 175700) is an autosomal dominant disorder characterized by a distinct combination of craniofacial, hand and foot malformations. In this report, clinical and radiological findings of 12 patients with GCPS derived from 4 independent families and 3 sporadic cases with documented GLI3 mutations are presented with particular emphasis on inter- and intrafamilial variability. In a particularly instructive family in which 9 members of 4 generations could be studied clinically and molecularly, a missense mutation (R625W) is transmitted and shows a partially penetrant pattern. In a branch of the family, the GCPS phenotype skips a generation via a normal female carrier without clinical signs providing evidence that GCPS does not always manifest full penetrance as generally supposed.