We have evaluated, both clinically and by linkage analysis, a large family with 22 known affected males with the MASA syndrome (McKusick 303300). Clinical findings varied widely amongst the affected family members, with some appearing initially to have the MASA syndrome and others to have X-linked hydrocephalus (HSAS) (McKusick 307000). Important findings included the presence of adducted thumbs in two obligate carriers, learning problems or mild mental retardation in three females, two of whom were obligate carriers, and hydrocephalus with neonatal death in three females born to obligate carriers. X-inactivation analysis in lymphocytes from the two women with adducted thumbs revealed preferential inactivation of one X chromosome, suggesting that nonrandom X-inactivation may be responsible for clinical expression in females. The presence of HSAS in some individuals of this family and the MASA syndrome in others further supports the hypothesis that these two conditions are the result of a mutation in the same gene.