Landscape structure, or the spatial organization of different land units, has an impact on erosion and sedimentation on agricultural land. However, current erosion models emphasize the temporal, and less the spatial, variability of relevant parameters so that the effects of changes in landscape structure have hitherto not been studied in detail. Therefore, a spatially distributed water and tillage erosion model that allows the incorporation of landscape structure is presented. The model is applied to three study sites in the Belgian Loam Belt where significant changes in landscape structure occurred over the last fifty years. Erosion rates were shown to change by up to 28% however, with decreases as well as increases occurring. These could be explained by the interaction of changes in land use with changes in the position of field boundaries. Thus, landscape structure is an important control when the effect of environmental change on erosion risk is to be assessed.