This study evaluated illness representations, distress, and health-related behavior one year after disclosure of a predictive genetic test result for hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer (HNPCC) in 36 carriers and 36 noncarriers. Post-test, no significant differences between carriers and noncarriers were found in perceived risk and perceived seriousness of colorectal and endometrial cancer or in perceived control over endometrial cancer. Confidence in the controllability of colorectal cancer by means of medical examinations was higher for carriers than noncarriers post-test. Mean levels of distress (cancer-specific distress, state anxiety, psychoneuroticism) were within normal ranges and none of the participants had an overall pattern (on all scales) of clinically elevated levels of distress. Carriers had significantly higher cancer-related distress one year posttest than noncarriers. In both groups, colorectal cancer-related distress decreased. Noncarriers additionally showed decreased endometrial cancer-related distress and state anxiety. Within the year after testing, none of the noncarriers had a colonoscopy and all carriers where adherent to the recommendations regarding colorectal cancer screening. Although interview data delineated individually different problems specifically related to predictive testing (e.g., worry, difficulties in relation to other relatives, burden of regular follow-up), generally, predictive testing for HNPCC does not seem to induce major psychological problems. Moreover, the presented data are promising regarding the impact on health-related behavior.