Journal of hazardous materials vol:70 issue:3 pages:93-104
The flammability limits of toluene-air mixtures are experimentally determined at pressures up to 500 kPa and temperatures up to 250 degrees C in a closed spherical vessel. The results at atmospheric pressure are compared with the results obtained in a glass tube. The flammability limits depend linearly upon temperature. A twilight zone characterized by weak pressure rises is observed for toluene at all pressures, while soot is formed at elevated pressures only. The explosion characteristics of toluene are compared with those of methane. Despite their chemical differences, the explosion characteristics of toluene and methane are similar. (C) 1999 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved.