Opsoclonus-myoclonus syndrome (OMS), a movement disorder characterised by chaotic eye movements and myoclonus, is a rare clinical entity. We present two cases of opsoclonus-myoclonus syndrome of paraneoplastic origin. In the first patient the syndrome was associated with a breast carcinoma and in the second patient with a non small cell lung carcinoma. However none of the commonly associated antibodies were found in these cases. From the neuropathological findings from the first patient we find arguments that support the current hypothesis on the pathophysiology of OMS namely a dysfunction in brainstem and cerebellum. We conclude that in adults with OMS one has to be very suspicious of a possible neoplastic origin of the syndrome. The antibodies associated with some cases of OMS are thought to play a role in the pathophysiology of the syndrome although the exact immunologic mechanism remains unknown. Research into the neuropathological substrate of OMS yields a broad range of abnormalities in brain stem and cerebellum. However none of these findings seem to be pathognomonic. As for the possible therapy of OMS, several immunomodulating strategies can be used with varying success. At present there is no established standard therapy.