The prevalence of Chlamydiaceae infections on 258 closed pig breeding farms in Belgium was examined. For this purpose, 258 farms were randomly selected in the provinces West-Vlaanderen (44%), Oost-Vlaanderen (20%), Antwerpen (10%) and Vlaams-Brabant (6%). Of all farms examined, 96.5% were positive for Chlamydia-specific antibodies in ELISA and most were moderately to strongly positive. ELISA results revealed only 9 (3.5%) sero-negative farms. None of the ELISA negative sera reacted in immunoblotting. Only 212 of 249 ELISA positive sera reacted positive in immunoblotting. Additionally, 23 autopsy samples were examined by isolation in Vero cells. The major outer membrane sequence of the one isolate obtained showed 98.6% amino acid homology to the one of Chlamydophila psittaci strain CP3, formerly isolated from a pigeon. Present observations indicate that chlamydial infections are nearly endemic in the Belgian pig population and that Belgian pigs can become infected with C. psittaci. Nevertheless, the role and significance of Chlamydiaceae as pathogens in pigs remain unsolved and require further investigation.