Iee proceedings-vision image and signal processing vol:152 issue:4 pages:491-500
An efficient system for realistic speech animation is proposed. The system Supports all steps of the animation pipeline, from the capture or design of 3-D head models LIP to the synthesis and editing of the performance. This pipeline is fully 3-D, which yields high flexibility in the use of the animated character. Real detailed 3-D face dynamics, observed at video frame rate for thousands of points on the face of speaking actors, Underpin the realism of the facial deformations. These are given a compact and intuitive representation via independent component analysis (ICA). Performances amount to trajectories through this 'viseme space'. When asked to animate a face the system replicates the 'visemes' that it has learned, and adds the necessary co-articulation effects. Realism has been improved through comparisons with motion captured groundtruth. Faces for which no 3-D dynamics could be observed can be animated nonetheless. Their visemes are adapted automatically to their physiognomy by localising the face in a 'face space'.