Biochimica et Biophysica Acta vol:1455 issue:2-3 pages:155-65
The carbohydrate-deficient glycoprotein or CDG syndromes (OMIM 212065) are a recently delineated group of genetic, multisystem diseases with variable dysmorphic features. The known CDG syndromes are characterized by a partial deficiency of the N-linked glycans of secretory glycoproteins, lysosomal enzymes, and probably also membranous glycoproteins. Due to the deficiency of terminal N-acetylneuraminic acid or sialic acid, the glycan changes can be observed in serum transferrin or other glycoproteins using isoelectrofocusing with immunofixation as the most widely used diagnostic technique. Most patients show a serum sialotransferrin pattern characterized by increased di- and asialotransferrin bands (type I pattern). The majority of patients with type I are phosphomannomutase deficient (type IA), while in a few other patients, deficiencies of phosphomannose isomerase (type IB) or endoplasmic reticulum glucosyltransferase (type IC) have been demonstrated. This review is an update on CDG syndrome type IA.