In this paper, 51 patients with refractory complex partial seizures (CPS) and intracranial structural abnormalities demonstrated with optimum MR (space-occupying: n=16; atrophic: n=32; dysplastic: n=3) were studied. Video-EEG monitoring showed CPS in all patients. In 13 patients, additional intracranial EEG monitoring demonstrated hippocampal seizure onset in 12 and medial occipital ictal onset in 1 patient. Interictal and ictal dipole modeling using a spherical head model and realistic electrode coordinates were performed Spatiotemporal dipole mapping of interictal epileptic discharges revealed two distinct dipole patterns. Patients with lesions located in the medial temporal lobe (n=41) and medial occipital lobe (n=2) uniformly presented a dipole with an elevation of more than 15 degrees relative to the axial plane. Eight out of ten patients with extratemporal lesions and 1 patient with a pure neocortical temporal lesion had a less stable dipole with an elevation less than 15 degrees relative to the axial plane. Dipole modeling of epochs of early ictal discharges revealed a striking correspondence with the interictal findings in individual patients. Ictal dipole modeling identified the ictal onset zone correctly when compared with intracranial EEG recordings from bilateral hippocampal depth electrodes in patients with medial temporal seizure onset. Mapping of dipoles on MR images of individual patients facilitated clinical interpretation of the EEG data. Interictal and ictal dipole mapping provided additional and clinically relevant information and may obviate the need for intracranial EEG studies in some surgical candidates for refractory CPS.