IEEE Journal of Solid-State Circuits vol:37 issue:6 pages:760-765
In recent years, much research has been carried out on the possibility of using pure CMOS, rather than bipolar or BiCMOS technologies, for radio-frequency (RF) applications. An example of such an application is the Global Positioning System (GPS). One of the important bottlenecks to make the transition to pure CMOS is the immunity of the circuits against electrostatic discharge (ESD). This paper shows that it is possible to design a low-noise amplifier (LNA) with very good RF performance and sufficient ESD immunity by carefully co-designing both the LNA and ESD protection. This is demonstrated with a 0.8-dB noise figure LNA  with an ESD protection of -1.4-0.6 kV human body model (HBM) with a power consumption of 9 mW. The circuit was designed as a standalone LNA for a 1.2276-GHz GPS receiver. It is implemented in a standard 0.25-mum 4M1P CMOS process.