This paper is an updated and extended version of the paper "The QR Decomposition and the Singular Value Decomposition in the Symmetrized Max-Plus Algebra" (B. De Schutter and B. De Moor, SIAM J. Matrix Anal. Appl., 19 (1998), pp. 378-406). The max-plus algebra, which has maximization and addition as its basic operations, can be used to describe and analyze certain classes of discrete-event systems, such as flexible manufacturing systems, railway networks, and parallel processor systems. In contrast to conventional algebra and conventional (linear) system theory, the max-plus algebra and the max-plus-algebraic system theory for discrete-event systems are at present far from fully developed, and many fundamental problems still have to be solved. Currently, much research is going on to deal with these problems and to further extend the max-plus algebra and to develop a complete max-plus-algebraic system theory for discrete-event systems.